In 2013 the World Bank undertook a study on local governance in zones of low density population. This represents a major challenge in both northern and southern hemisphere states; governments have struggled to find ways to deliver basic servies and create a sense of citizenship in large countries where populations are low, but widely dispersed.
As part of this research, ODI conducted a review of the Malian government's experience of delivering essential services such as health, education, clean water and justice, with special attention given to the provision of servies to the nomadic and sedentary population.
The study was divided into three parts: the first part reviewed innovative approaches for delivering servies, focusing on examples that have improved trust between service providers and the local population and have resulted in increased customer satisfaction. The second assessed the challenges the state experienced in establishing a positive relationship betweeen local goverment and the service providers. The third offered solutions for improving the delivery of services and local governance.