Women and power: what can the numbers tell us about women's voice, leadership and decision-making?

Research reports and studies
February 2016

This briefing provides an overview of existing global indicators for measuring women's voice and leadership.

It outlines the methodological and conceptual issues that should be taken into account when using these indicators and critically examines the current state of available data in terms of the wider universe of proposed indicators.

The briefing and database are available to download below.

Women's voice and leadership indicators database

The database outlines a range of indicators of women’s voice, leadership and decision-making that have been proposed and provides links and details of existing sources of this data.

It was compiled using three major sources of data (i) generic global social, political and economic indicator sets compiled by international organisations; (ii) specific global women’s empowerment indicator sets compiled by international organisations; and (iii) indicators used by academic papers, grey literature and evaluation reports.

Data sources were included where they are publically available, freely accessible online and provide data that is both internationally comparable and has been collected at more than one point in time. While extensive, this is not a comprehensive list of all data sources and the authors would appreciate any references that could help to further close data gaps.

A complete list of indicators is provided in the drop down menus below. The list includes both current indicators with links to the data source, and proposed indicators (designated by N/A for data sources). The accompanying briefing paper provides complete details of the conceptual framework and definitions used, as well as a complete list of sources and analysis of patterns of data coverage.

 

Domains

Economic indicators
IndicatorIndicator TypeAvailable DataSource
Access to fertiliser and agricultural inputsResource N/A
Accounting knowledgeResource N/A
Agricultural production rates by genderLeadership/decision making N/A
Allocations the state offers for important services, guarantees, and enforcement mechanisms around issues central to gender equityLegal/Rights N/A
Area dedicated to traditionally female cropsResource N/A
Attitudes to women in labour marketAttitudes N/A
Autonomy over use of agricultural incomesLeadership/decision making N/A
Availability of government provided childcareResource N/A
Average household expenditure of female/male headed households on education/health.Leadership/decision making N/A
Changes in % of property controlled by women and men (land, houses, livestock), across socio-economic and ethnic groups.Leadership/decision making N/A
Changes in % of property owned by women and men (land, houses, livestock), across socio-economic and ethnic groups.Resource N/A
Changes in time-use in selected activities, particularly greater sharing by household members of unpaid housework and child-care.Leadership/decision makingNationalILO/EDGE
Childcare while working (access and type)ResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Decision on use of earnings (Decision maker)Leadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Distribution of agricultural holders, by sexResourceNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights Database
Distribution of agricultural land area owned, by sexResourceNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights Database
Distribution of agricultural land value owned, by sexResourceNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights Database
Distribution of agricultural landowners, by sexResourceNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights Database
Employment rate of persons aged 25-49 with a child under age 3 living in a household and with no children living in the household, by sexParticipationNationalILO/EDGE
Equal ability for a woman to get a job or pursue a trade or profession in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Equal ability for a woman to open a bank account in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Equal ability for a woman to register a business in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Equal ability for a woman to sign a contract in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Equal pay legislationLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law database
Equality between men and women for private sector employmentParticipationNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law database
Estimated GNI per capita, by sexResourceNationalUNDP/HDR
Fear of eviction after divorce, separation or widowhoodAttitudes N/A
Female employment levels and source of earningParticipationNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Female professional and technical workers (as percentage of total)Participation N/A
Gender gap in wagesResourceNationalILO/EDGE
Impact of maternity laws on hiring of womenParticipation N/A
Incidence of agricultural landownership, by sexResourceNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights Database
Individual/Joint landholding with spouseResource N/A
Informal employment as a proportion of total non-agricultural employment, by sexParticipationNationalILO/EDGE
Labour force participation rate for persons aged 15-24, by sexParticipationNationalILO/EDGE
Labour force participation rate for persons aged 15+, by sexParticipationNationalILO/EDGE
Legal equality of male and female rights to access financial services i.e. credit, bank accounts and loans (impact of customary, traditional and religious practices)Legal/RightsNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index
Legal equality of male and female rights to own, use and control land (impact of customary, traditional and religious practices)Legal/RightsNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index
Legal equality of male and female rights to own, use and control non-land assets (impact of customary, traditional and religious practices)Legal/RightsNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index
Legal quota levels for women on corporate boardsLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Legal quotas for the appointment of women in land dispute resolution committeesLegal/RightsNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights Database
Legal quotas for the appointment of women in land management and administration committeesLegal/RightsNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights Database
Legal rights of surviving spouse in terms of rights to the matrimonial house for lifeLegal/RightsNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights Database
Legislation to allow joint tenure for urban and rural property with marital community of property (and joint administration) as the default)Legal/Rights N/A
Length of maternity leave (weeks)Legal/RightsNationalOECD IAEG-GS
Length of paid paternity leave (weeks)Legal/RightsNationalOECD IAEG-GS
Managerial control of farmLeadership/decision making N/A
Managerial control of loanLeadership/decision making N/A
Married couples jointly share legal responsibility for financially maintaining the family's expensesLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Maternity leave benefits (percentage of wages paid in covered period)Legal/Rights N/A
Occupation (by gender)ParticipationNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Parental leave with job protection (weeks)Legal/RightsNationalOECD IAEG-GS
Percentage distribution of employed population in agricultural sector, by sexParticipationNationalILO/EDGE
Percentage distribution of employed population in industrial sector, by sexParticipationNationalILO/EDGE
Percentage distribution of employed population in service sector, by sexParticipationNationalILO/EDGE
Percentage firms with female top managerLeadership/decision makingNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Percentage of available credit, financial and technical support services going to women/men from government/non-government sources.Resource N/A
Percentage of firms owned by women, by sizeLeadership/decision makingNationalILO/EDGE
Percentage who believe that men get more opportunities for jobs that pay well, by sexAttitudesNationalPew Research Center
Percentage who think that when jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job, by sexAttitudesNationalPew Research Center
Percentage who think women should be able to work outside the home, by sexAttitudesNationalPew Research Center
Perception of economic autonomyAttitudes N/A
Possession of formal/legal proof of tenure or ownershipResource N/A
Proportion of adult population owning land, by sexResourceNationalWorld Bank/EDGE
Proportion of children under age 3 in formal careResourceNationalOECD/EDGE
Proportion of employed who are employers, by sexLeadership/decision makingNationalILO/EDGE
Proportion of employed who are own-account workers, by sexLeadership/decision makingNationalILO/EDGE
Proportion of employed working part-time, by sexParticipationNationalILO/EDGE
Proportion of population with access to credit, by sexResourceNationalWorld Bank/EDGE
Proportion of women who migrate internationallyParticipation N/A
Quota mechanisms for women on corporate boardsLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law database
Regulations on male/female work hours and rolesLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law database
Regulations on part-time work (e.g. bans or limitations)Legal/Rights N/A
Relative contribution of women’s earnings to household expenditures (For married/living together and otherwise)ResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Relative male/female under-employment ratesParticipation N/A
Relative poverty of female headed householdsResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Relative rates of female to male migrationLeadership/decision making N/A
Relative size and profitability of female farming plotsResource N/A
Relative size and profitability of female owned firms (absolute and sectors)Resource N/A
"Representation of women’s economic interests in macroeconomic policies, state and federal budgets"Leadership/decision making N/A
Salary/wage differentials between women and men for similar workResource N/A
Self-reported final say in making daily purchases (all women/married/non-married)Leadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Self-reported final say in making large purchases (all women/married/non-married)Leadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
The legal framework includes provisions for the promotion of women’s rights to land, property, and/or productive resources.Legal/RightsNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights Database
Total duration of paid maternity and parental leave (weeks)Legal/RightsNationalOECD IAEG-GS
Under the law of succession, the surviving spouse is entitled to a minimum share of matrimonial propertyLegal/RightsNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights Database
Whether sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights (and impact of traditional/religious/customary law)Legal/RightsNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index
Whether widows and widowers have equal inheritance rights (and impact of traditional/religious/customary law)Legal/RightsNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index
Women's control over earnings (who decides how to spend money - self/joint with partner etc. For married or living together and not)Leadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Women's share of managerial positionsLeadership/decision makingNationalILO/EDGE
Women’s involvement and/or representation in local trade associations and access to marketsParticipation N/A
Women’s representation in high paying jobs; women CEOsParticipation N/A
Youth unemployment rate for persons aged 15-24, by sexParticipationNationalILO/EDGE

 

Political indicators
IndicatorIndicator TypeAvailable DataSource
Ability of married woman to convey citizenship to non-national spouse in the same way as a manLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Ability of woman to confer citizenship to her children in the same way as a man - married/unmarried distinctionLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Awareness of own power in relation to others, and reliance of others on them. Ability to see leverage and mutual advantage in joint actions both for self and for others.Attitudes N/A
Breakdown of female CSO leadership by service delivery and advocacy organisationsLeadership/decision making N/A
Budget size of CSO's led by men and womenLeadership/decision making N/A
Chief Justice is currently femaleLeadership/decision makingNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Collective awareness of injustice, potential of mobilizationAttitudes N/A
"Community mobilization for rights; campaigns for rights awareness; effective local enforcement of legal rights"Resource N/A
Compulsory birth registrationLegal/Rights N/A
Constitutional access to public goodsLegal/Rights N/A
Constitutional equality - existence of non-discrimination clause, non-discrimination clause mentions gender, guarantee equality before the lawLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Contact with officials, politicians and other leaders, as well as form and reason of contact, by sexLeadership/decision makingNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Customary law - legal recognition of customary law as a source of law, validity/invalidity of customary law where it violates constitutional provisions on non-discrimination/equalityLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Degree of turnover in women's group leadershipResource N/A
Domestic support for political engagementAttitudes N/A
Equality of process for men and women when applying for passports and national ID cards - including married/unmarried woman distinctionLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Explicit constitutional provisions or laws on the rights of womenLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Exposure to mass media (newspapers, radio and television; by gender)ResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Extent to which officials and politicians listen to people like the respondent, by sexAttitudesNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Extent to which women's groups form larger alliances and coalitions to achieve collective gainsResource N/A
Family support for political engagementAttitudes N/A
Female participation in village meetings (questions, complaints, requests etc.)Participation N/A
Funding for gender equality initiativesResource N/A
Gender equity of evidentiary weight of testimony in courtLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
"Knowledge of legal rights; domestic support for exercising rights"Resource N/A
Knowledge of political system and means of access to it (absolute and relative)Resource N/A
Legal quota levels for women in national parliamentLegal/RightsNational & Sub-NationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Legal recognition of customary courtsLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Legal recognition of personal law courtsLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Number for female justices on the constitutional courtLeadership/decision makingNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Number of years of a female president or prime minister in the last 50 yearsParticipation N/A
Participation rates in religious groups, voluntary associations or community group, by sexParticipationNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Participation rates in various forms of civic activity, by sexParticipationNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Participation rates in various forms of political activity during the last election, by sexParticipationNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Percentage believe men make better political leaders than women, by sexAttitudesNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Percentage believe women have the same chance of election to office as men , by sexAttitudesNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Percentage of men and women who voted in last election and reasons why, if notLeadership/decision makingNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Percentage of women in decision-making positions in local government.Leadership/decision making N/A
Percentage of women in senior/junior decision making positions within civil society organisationsLeadership/decision making N/A
Percentage of women in senior/junior decision making positions within political partiesLeadership/decision making N/A
Percentage of women in senior/junior decision making positions within unions.Leadership/decision making N/A
Percentage of women participating in political actions - signing a petition, joining in boycotts, attending peaceful demonstrations, joining strikes, any other (any time and recent, absolute and relative to men)ParticipationNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values Survey
Percentage of women who are members of - churches, environmental organisations, humanitarian or charitable organisations, consumer organisations, self-help/mutual aid groups - absolute and relative to menParticipationNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values Survey
Percentage of women who are members of professional associations - absolute and relative to menParticipationNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values Survey
Percentage of women who are union members - absolute and relative to menParticipationNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values Survey
Percentage of women with birth certificatesResource N/A
Percentage of women/men who are members of political parties - absolute and relative to menParticipationNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values Survey
Political funding networks/mechanisms for female candidatesResource N/A
Presence of gender budgetsLegal/Rights N/A
Presence of machinery to monitor and sanction on equality legislation (e.g. independent ombudsman, political committees, service delivery contracts)Resource N/A
Presence of specific committees on gender issues with "mainstreaming" missionParticipation N/A
Presence of strong, autonomous feminist movementsLeadership/decision making N/A
Presence of women in parliamentary committees and caucusesParticipation N/A
Presence of women's caucuses (lower/upper house, formal/informal, cross party status, female only status, rules status, presence of strategic plan, presence of communication plan, issues covered - family, gender, other)ParticipationNationalInter-Parliamentary Union
Profiling of women's issues in policymakingLeadership/decision making N/A
Proportion of candidates for public office that are femaleParticipation N/A
Proportion of female ministers in charge of "feminine"/"masculine" ministriesLeadership/decision making N/A
Proportion of female ministers in charge of "high prestige"/"low prestige" ministriesLeadership/decision making N/A
Proportion of females among tertiary education teachers or professorsLeadership/decision makingNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament (upper and lower house)ParticipationNationalInter-Parliamentary Union/EDGE
Proportion of victorious candidates for public office that are femaleParticipation N/A
Public expenditure on female priorities/needsLeadership/decision making N/A
Quota mechanisms for representation in local government (party lists, reserved seats, proportion of candidates, voluntary/mandatory etc.)Legal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law database
Quota mechanisms for representation in national legislature (party lists, reserved seats, proportion of candidates, voluntary/mandatory etc.)Legal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law database
Representation of women’s interests in effective lobbies and interest groupsLeadership/decision making N/A
Right to be a member of political partyLegal/Rights N/A
Right to hold public officeLegal/Rights N/A
Self-reported percentage of men and women who vote in national electionsLeadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values Survey
Share of female judgesLeadership/decision makingNationalUNODC/EDGE
Share of female police officersParticipationNationalUNODC/EDGE
Signatory of international agreements and principles on women's rights e.g. CEDAW, Beijing Plan for ActionLegal/Rights N/A
Skills, confidence, and knowledge to hold duty bearers and the powerful accountable; recognition that human rights bring, also, forms of accountability to every individualAttitudes N/A
Strength as a voting blocResource N/A
Willingness to complain and take action on issues e.g. health care provisionAttitudes N/A
Women's share of government ministerial positionsLeadership/decision makingNationalInter-Parliamentary Union/EDGE
Women’s participation in peace processes, agreements and negotiationsParticipation N/A

 

Social indicators
IndicatorIndicator TypeAvailable DataSource
Ability to make childbearing decisions: use contraception, access abortionLeadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Acceptability of divorceAttitudes N/A
Access to anti-retroviral drug, by sexResourceNationalWHO/EDGE
Access to information and skills that a woman deems helpful or necessary; awareness that such information/skills even existResource N/A
Actions during pregnancy - food, work and seeking healthcareLeadership/decision making N/A
Adjusted net enrolment rate in primary education by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Adjusted net intake rate to the first grade of primary education, by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Adolescent birth rateResourceNationalUNPD/EDGE
Adolescent birth rate by economic quintileResourceNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Adult mortality 15-34 years by causeResourceNationalWHO/EDGE
Adult mortality 35-59 years by causeResourceNationalWHO/EDGE
Advocacy for rights and legislationParticipation N/A
Age at first birth (Women only)ResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Age at first marriage (actual, by gender)ResourceNationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Age at first marriage (median, by gender)ResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Age at first sexual intercourse (actual, by gender)ResourceNationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Age at first sexual intercourse (median, by gender)ResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Age gap with spouseResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Antenatal care coverage, at least four visitsResourceNationalUNICEF/EDGE
Antenatal care coverage, at least one visitResourceNationalUNICEF/EDGE
Aspirations for education and jobs (Children and parents for children)Attitudes N/A
Attitudes of couples to family planning (by gender - both agree, both disagree, agree but spouse opposed etc.)AttitudesNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Attitudes to FGM and violence against womenAttitudes N/A
Average number of hours spent on paid and unpaid domestic work combined (total work burden), by sexResourceNationalILO/EDGE
Average number of hours spent on unpaid domestic work by sex (NB - Only partial separation of housework and childcare)ResourceNationalILO/EDGE
Belief in equal rights between husband and wife in the familyAttitudes N/A
Beliefs regarding male and female quality of life (better male, female or the same), by sexAttitudesNationalPew Research Center
Beliefs regarding most satisfying marriage - husband provides or both husband and wife have jobsAttitudesNationalPew Research Center
Contraceptive prevalence among women who are married or in a union, aged 15-49Leadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalUNPD/EDGE
Control over sexual relationsLeadership/decision making N/A
Control over spouse selection and marriage timingLeadership/decision making N/A
Criminal sanctions for sexual harassmentLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Criminal sanctions for sexual harassment in employmentLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Current marital status (by gender)ResourceNationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Current use of any modern method of contraception (married women)ResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Degree of sexual communication and negotiationLeadership/decision making N/A
Degree to which duty bearers ensure that women have the chance to know what they’re due, how they can access this, and what to do in the event that they are denied information or servicesResource N/A
Discussion of family planning with spouse (by gender)ResourceNationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Domestic violence legislation includes emotional abuseLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Domestic violence legislation includes financial abuseLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Domestic violence legislation includes physical abuseLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Domestic violence legislation includes sexual abuseLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Domestic violence legislation protects women in unmarried intimate relationshipsLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Education gap with spouseResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Educational attainment (lower secondary) of the population aged 25 and older, by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Educational attainment (post-secondary) of the population aged 25 and older, by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Educational attainment (primary) of the population aged 25 and older, by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Educational attainment (tertiary) of the population aged 25 and older, by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Educational attainment (upper secondary) of the population aged 25 and older, by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Effective transition rate from primary to secondary education (general programmes), by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Enforcement of legislation related to the protection of human rights, as well as specially designed laws and judicial services to promote gender equityResource N/A
Equal ability for a woman to be "head of household" or "head of family" in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Equal ability for a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Equal ability for a woman to travel outside her home in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Equality of process for men and women travelling outside the country - married and unmarried distinctionLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Evidence of "missing women"ResourceNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index
Existence of government office tasked with addressing sexual harassmentLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Experience of crime and levels of crime reporting, by sexResourceNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Extent of training or networking among local women, as compared to men.Resource N/A
Fear of crime, by sexResourceNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Fear walking in neighbourhood, by sexResourceNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Female headed households, % of total householdsLeadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Female literacy levelsResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Female nutritional intakeResource N/A
Female school attendance ratesResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Femicide ratesResource N/A
Gender attitudes/attitudes towards women in society (Also by strategic block e.g. government officials, trade unions etc.)Attitudes N/A
Gender parity index of the gross enrolment ratio in primary educationResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Gender parity index of the gross enrolment ratio in secondary educationResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Gender parity index of the gross enrolment ratio in tertiary educationResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Girl child health outcomes - height for age, stunting, weight for height, BMIResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Gross enrolment ratio in secondary education, by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Gross enrolment ratio in tertiary education, by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Gross graduation ratio from lower secondary education, by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Ideal and actual number of children (actual and mean, by gender)Leadership/decision makingNationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Imbalances in definitions of adulteryLegal/Rights N/A
Increase/decrease in violence against womenResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Inequalities in child health indicators (vaccination rates, BMI, rates of malnutrition/stunting)ResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Knowledge of laws around issues of women's social positions, status, equality etc.Resource N/A
Law guarantees equal women and men have the same right to be the legal guardian of a child during marriage (also impact of customary/traditional/religious laws)Legal/RightsNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index
Law guarantees women and men have the same right to be the legal guardian of and have custody rights over a child after divorce (also impact of customary/traditional/religious laws) (Social Institutions and Gender Index)Legal/RightsNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index
Laws on sex selection technologyLegal/Rights N/A
"Laws supporting women’s rights, access to resources and options"Legal/Rights N/A
Legal age of marriage is the same for men and women (above/below 18)Legal/RightsNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index
Legal age of marriage is the same for men and women, but customary/traditional/religious laws discriminate against some womenLegal/RightsNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index
Legislation on rape recognises marital rapeLegal/RightsNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index
Legislation on sexual harassment in educationLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Legislation on sexual harassment in employmentLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Legislation on sexual harassment in public spacesLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Legislation on sexual harassment in service provisionLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Legislation specifically addresses sexual harassmentLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Legislation specifically addressing domestic violenceLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Level of out-of-pocket health expenditure/public health spending/subsidies by genderResource N/A
Life expectancy at age 60, by sexResourceNationalUNPD/EDGE
Life expectancy at birth, by sexResourceNationalUNDP/HDR
Local campaigns against domestic violenceLeadership/decision making N/A
Local campaigns against domestic violenceParticipation N/A
Male and female perceptions of gender equalityAttitudesNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values Survey
Male/Female performance at school in different subjectsResource N/A
Maternal mortality ratioResourceNationalWHO/EDGE
Mean years of schooling, by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics
Mobility of women/men within and outside their residential locality, as compared to men.Participation N/A
Need for family planning services amongst currently married womenAttitudesNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Number of cases related to the legal rights of divorced and widowed women heard in local courts, and the results.Resource N/A
Number of cases related to women's rights heard in local courts, and their results.Participation N/A
Number of co-wives (women only)AttitudesNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Numbers of women in local institutions (e.g. women's associations, consciousness raising or income generating groups, local churches, ethnic and kinship associations) relative to project area population,Participation N/A
Numbers of women in positions of power in local organizationsLeadership/decision making N/A
Nursing and midwifery personnel per 1000 head of populationResourceNationalGlobal Health Observatory
Outlawing of domestic violenceLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law database
Parental control on marriageResource N/A
Percentage believing men and women should have equal rights, by sexAttitudesNationalPew Research Center
Percentage of births attended by skilled health staffResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Percentage of men and women accessing ICT's, internet and mobile phonesResource N/A
Percentage of men and women who believe it is justifiable for man to beat his wifeAttitudesNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values Survey
Percentage of sexually active men/women not using modern contraception who don't want children for at least 2 yearsLeadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Percentage of those supporting equal rights who believe more changes are needed, by sexAttitudesNationalPew Research Center
Percentage of those supporting equal rights who believe most changes have been made, by sexAttitudesNationalPew Research Center
Percentage of women aged 20-24 years who were married or in a union before age 18ResourceNationalUNICEF/EDGE
Percentage of women ages 15-49 who believe a husband/partner is justified in hitting or beating his wife/partner for any of five reasonsAttitudesNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Percentage of women with no say in own health careLeadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Percentage of women with no say in visits to friendsLeadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Percentage who believe university education is more important for a boy than a girl, by sexAttitudesNationalPew Research Center
Percentage who believe women should have the right to decide if they wear a veil, by sexAttitudesNationalPew Research Center
Political, legal, religious support for options for divorce (or lack of active opposition)Legal/Rights N/A
Positive images of self, belief in one’s abilities, feelings of self-efficacyAttitudes N/A
Positive media images of women as well as their roles and contributionsAttitudes N/A
Presence of law requiring married woman to obey their husbandsLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Presence of services and trained professionals for victims of VAWResource N/A
Presence of specific legislation on rapeLegal/RightsNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index
Prevalence of FGM/cuttingResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Prevalence of sexual harassmentResource N/A
Primary education completion rate (proxy), by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Proportion of births attended by a skilled health professionalResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Proportion of ever-partnered women (aged 15-49) subjected to physical and/or sexual violence by a current or former intimate partner, in the last 12 monthsResourceNationalUNSD, WHO/EDGE
Proportion of households with access to mass media (radio, TV, internet), by sex of household headResourceNationalInternational Telecommunication Union/EDGE
Proportion of individuals using mobile/cellular telephones, by sexResourceNationalInternational Telecommunication Union/EDGE
Proportion of individuals using the internet, by sexResourceNationalInternational Telecommunication Union/EDGE
Proportion of women (aged 15-49) subjected to sexual violence by persons other than an intimate partner, since age 15ResourceNationalUNSD, WHO/EDGE
Rate at which the number of local justices/ prosecutors/ lawyers who are women/men is increasing/decreasing.Participation N/A
Rate at which the number of women/men in the local police force, by rank, is increasing or decreasing.Participation N/A
Rates of contact with courts, ease of obtaining assistance and bribes paid in process, by genderParticipationNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Rates of conviction for sexual assaultResource N/A
Rates of intimate partner violenceResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Reason for discontinuing contraceptive use (including husband disapproved and knowledge/access issues)Leadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Reason for not using contraception (by gender, including spouse disapproval and knowledge/access issues)Leadership/decision makingNationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Reasons for female leaving schoolAttitudesNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Reasons for non-reporting of crime, by sexAttitudesNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Reduction in the practice of dowryAttitudes N/A
Regional/national trends in timing of marriage: political, legal, religious support for (or lack of active opposition to)Resource N/A
Relationship skills demonstrated by male partnersAttitudes N/A
Repealing of mitigating legislation around honour crimesLegal/Rights N/A
Reporting of crimes against womenParticipation N/A
Representation of female in myth and ritualAttitudes N/A
Right to social protectionLegal/Rights N/A
Scale of perceived freedom of choice and control over own life, by sexAttitudesNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values Survey
Scale of satisfaction with life, by sexAttitudesNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values Survey
Seeking assistance in cases of domestic violenceLeadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Self selection of spousesLeadership/decision making N/A
Self-reported final say in all decision categories (health case; large purchases; daily purchases; visits to family, relatives, friends; and what food to cook daily) (all women/married/non-married)Leadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Self-reported final say in own health care (all women/married/non-married)Leadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Self-reported final say in visits to family, relatives, friends (all women/married/non-married)Leadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Self-reported final say in what to cook daily (all women/married/non-married)Leadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Sex ratios of infant and under-five mortalityResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Sexual relationships of non-married womenAttitudesNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Share of female science, engineering, manufacturing and construction graduates at tertiary levelResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Shift in patriarchal norms (such as son preference)Attitudes N/A
Specialised court or procedure for cases of domestic violenceLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Systems providing easy access to contraception, safe abortion, reproductive health servicesResource N/A
Teenage pregnancy and motherhoodResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
The effect of the enforcement of legislation in terms of treatment of offenders against women.Resource N/A
Total fertility rates - births per womanResourceNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Total fertility rates - births per woman by economic quintileResourceNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Under-five mortality rate, by sexResourceNationalUNICEF/EDGE
Unmet need for contraceptivesResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Use of judicial system to redress rights violationsLeadership/decision making N/A
Value of male/female childAttitudes N/A
Women's attitude toward refusing sex with husband (Agreeing with all or none of specified reasons/specified reasons for refusal)AttitudesNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Women's attitude toward wife beating (justification for various reasons)AttitudesNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Women's participation in decision making (Self/joint with partner etc. - breakdown by five areas of decision making. For married or living together and not)Leadership/decision makingNationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Women's share of population aged 15-49 living with HIV/AIDSResourceNationalUNICEF/EDGE
Women’s access to modern transportationParticipation N/A
Women’s participation in extra-familial groups and social networksParticipation N/A
Women’s sense of inclusion and entitlementAttitudes N/A
"Women’s visibility in and access to social spaces"Participation N/A
Youth literacy rate of persons (15-24 years), by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE

 

Indicator types

Leadership and decision-making
IndicatorDomainAvailable DataSource
Ability to make childbearing decisions: use contraception, access abortionSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Actions during pregnancy - food, work and seeking healthcareSocial N/A
Agricultural production rates by genderEconomic N/A
Autonomy over use of agricultural incomesEconomic N/A
Average household expenditure of female/male headed households on education/health.Economic N/A
Breakdown of female CSO leadership by service delivery and advocacy organisationsPolitical N/A
Budget size of CSO's led by men and womenPolitical N/A
Changes in % of property controlled by women and men (land, houses, livestock), across socio-economic and ethnic groups.Economic N/A
Changes in time-use in selected activities, particularly greater sharing by household members of unpaid housework and child-care.EconomicNationalILO/EDGE
Chief Justice is currently femalePoliticalNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Contact with officials, politicians and other leaders, as well as form and reason of contact, by sexPoliticalNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Contraceptive prevalence among women who are married or in a union, aged 15-49SocialNational & Sub-NationalUNPD/EDGE
Control over sexual relationsSocial N/A
Control over spouse selection and marriage timingSocial N/A
Decision on use of earnings (Decision maker)EconomicNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Degree of sexual communication and negotiationSocial N/A
Female headed households, % of total householdsSocialNational & Sub-NationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Ideal and actual number of children (actual and mean, by gender)SocialNationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Local campaigns against domestic violenceSocial N/A
Managerial control of farmEconomic N/A
Managerial control of loanEconomic N/A
Number for female justices on the constitutional courtPoliticalNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Numbers of women in positions of power in local organizationsSocial N/A
Percentage firms with female top managerEconomicNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Percentage of firms owned by women, by sizeEconomicNationalILO/EDGE
Percentage of men and women who voted in last election and reasons why, if notPoliticalNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Percentage of sexually active men/women not using modern contraception who don't want children for at least 2 yearsSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Percentage of women in decision-making positions in local government.Political N/A
Percentage of women in senior/junior decision making positions within civil society organisationsPolitical N/A
Percentage of women in senior/junior decision making positions within political partiesPolitical N/A
Percentage of women in senior/junior decision making positions within unions.Political N/A
Percentage of women with no say in own health careSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Percentage of women with no say in visits to friendsSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Presence of strong, autonomous feminist movementsPolitical N/A
Profiling of women's issues in policymakingPolitical N/A
Proportion of employed who are employers, by sexEconomicNationalILO/EDGE
Proportion of employed who are own-account workers, by sexEconomicNationalILO/EDGE
Proportion of female ministers in charge of "feminine"/"masculine" ministriesPolitical N/A
Proportion of female ministers in charge of "high prestige"/"low prestige" ministriesPolitical N/A
Proportion of females among tertiary education teachers or professorsPoliticalNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Public expenditure on female priorities/needsPolitical N/A
Reason for discontinuing contraceptive use (including husband disapproved and knowledge/access issues)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Reason for not using contraception (by gender, including spouse disapproval and knowledge/access issues)SocialNationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Relative rates of female to male migrationEconomic N/A
"Representation of women’s economic interests in macroeconomic policies, state and federal budgets"Economic N/A
Representation of women’s interests in effective lobbies and interest groupsPolitical N/A
Seeking assistance in cases of domestic violenceSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Self selection of spousesSocial N/A
Self-reported final say in all decision categories (health case; large purchases; daily purchases; visits to family, relatives, friends; and what food to cook daily) (all women/married/non-married)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Self-reported final say in making daily purchases (all women/married/non-married)EconomicNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Self-reported final say in making large purchases (all women/married/non-married)EconomicNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Self-reported final say in own health care (all women/married/non-married)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Self-reported final say in visits to family, relatives, friends (all women/married/non-married)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Self-reported final say in what to cook daily (all women/married/non-married)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Self-reported percentage of men and women who vote in national electionsPoliticalNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values Survey
Share of female judgesPoliticalNationalUNODC/EDGE
Use of judicial system to redress rights violationsSocial N/A
Women's control over earnings (who decides how to spend money - self/joint with partner etc. For married or living together and not)EconomicNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Women's participation in decision making (Self/joint with partner etc. - breakdown by five areas of decision making. For married or living together and not)SocialNationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Women's share of government ministerial positionsPoliticalNationalInter-Parliamentary Union/EDGE
Women's share of managerial positionsEconomicNationalILO/EDGE

 

Attitudes and perceptions
IndicatorDomainAvailable DataSource
Acceptability of divorceSocial N/A
Aspirations for education and jobs (Children and parents for children)Social N/A
Attitudes of couples to family planning (by gender - both agree, both disagree, agree but spouse opposed etc.)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Attitudes to FGM and violence against womenSocial N/A
Attitudes to women in labour marketEconomic N/A
Awareness of own power in relation to others, and reliance of others on them. Ability to see leverage and mutual advantage in joint actions both for self and for others.Political N/A
Belief in equal rights between husband and wife in the familySocial N/A
Beliefs regarding male and female quality of life (better male, female or the same), by sexSocialNationalPew Research Center
Beliefs regarding most satisfying marriage - husband provides or both husband and wife have jobsSocialNationalPew Research Center
Collective awareness of injustice, potential of mobilizationPolitical N/A
Domestic support for political engagementPolitical N/A
Extent to which officials and politicians listen to people like the respondent, by sexPoliticalNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Family support for political engagementPolitical N/A
Fear of eviction after divorce, separation or widowhoodEconomic N/A
Gender attitudes/attitudes towards women in society (Also by strategic block e.g. government officials, trade unions etc.)Social N/A
Male and female perceptions of gender equalitySocialNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values Survey
Need for family planning services amongst currently married womenSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Number of co-wives (women only)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Percentage believe men make better political leaders than women, by sexPoliticalNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Percentage believe women have the same chance of election to office as men , by sexPoliticalNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Percentage believing men and women should have equal rights, by sexSocialNationalPew Research Center
Percentage of men and women who believe it is justifiable for man to beat his wifeSocialNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values Survey
Percentage of those supporting equal rights who believe more changes are needed, by sexSocialNationalPew Research Center
Percentage of those supporting equal rights who believe most changes have been made, by sexSocialNationalPew Research Center
Percentage of women ages 15-49 who believe a husband/partner is justified in hitting or beating his wife/partner for any of five reasonsSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Percentage who believe that men get more opportunities for jobs that pay well, by sexEconomicNationalPew Research Center
Percentage who believe university education is more important for a boy than a girl, by sexSocialNationalPew Research Center
Percentage who believe women should have the right to decide if they wear a veil, by sexSocialNationalPew Research Center
Percentage who think that when jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job, by sexEconomicNationalPew Research Center
Percentage who think women should be able to work outside the home, by sexEconomicNationalPew Research Center
Perception of economic autonomyEconomic N/A
Positive images of self, belief in one’s abilities, feelings of self-efficacySocial N/A
Positive media images of women as well as their roles and contributionsSocial N/A
Reasons for female leaving schoolSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Reasons for non-reporting of crime, by sexSocialNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Reduction in the practice of dowrySocial N/A
Relationship skills demonstrated by male partnersSocial N/A
Representation of female in myth and ritualSocial N/A
Scale of perceived freedom of choice and control over own life, by sexSocialNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values Survey
Scale of satisfaction with life, by sexSocialNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values Survey
Sexual relationships of non-married womenSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Shift in patriarchal norms (such as son preference)Social N/A
Skills, confidence, and knowledge to hold duty bearers and the powerful accountable; recognition that human rights bring, also, forms of accountability to every individualPolitical N/A
Value of male/female childSocial N/A
Willingness to complain and take action on issues e.g. health care provisionPolitical N/A
Women's attitude toward refusing sex with husband (Agreeing with all or none of specified reasons/specified reasons for refusal)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Women's attitude toward wife beating (justification for various reasons)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Women’s sense of inclusion and entitlementSocial N/A
Legal measures and constitutional rights
IndicatorDomainAvailable DataSource
Ability of married woman to convey citizenship to non-national spouse in the same way as a manPoliticalNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Ability of woman to confer citizenship to her children in the same way as a man - married/unmarried distinctionPoliticalNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Allocations the state offers for important services, guarantees, and enforcement mechanisms around issues central to gender equityEconomic N/A
Compulsory birth registrationPolitical N/A
Constitutional access to public goodsPolitical N/A
Constitutional equality - existence of non-discrimination clause, non-discrimination clause mentions gender, guarantee equality before the lawPoliticalNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Criminal sanctions for sexual harassmentSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Criminal sanctions for sexual harassment in employmentSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Customary law - legal recognition of customary law as a source of law, validity/invalidity of customary law where it violates constitutional provisions on non-discrimination/equalityPoliticalNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Domestic violence legislation includes emotional abuseSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Domestic violence legislation includes financial abuseSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Domestic violence legislation includes physical abuseSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Domestic violence legislation includes sexual abuseSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Domestic violence legislation protects women in unmarried intimate relationshipsSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Equal ability for a woman to be "head of household" or "head of family" in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Equal ability for a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Equal ability for a woman to get a job or pursue a trade or profession in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionEconomicNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Equal ability for a woman to open a bank account in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionEconomicNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Equal ability for a woman to register a business in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionEconomicNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Equal ability for a woman to sign a contract in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionEconomicNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Equal ability for a woman to travel outside her home in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Equal pay legislationEconomicNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law database
Equality of process for men and women travelling outside the country - married and unmarried distinctionSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Equality of process for men and women when applying for passports and national ID cards - including married/unmarried woman distinctionPoliticalNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Existence of government office tasked with addressing sexual harassmentSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Explicit constitutional provisions or laws on the rights of womenPoliticalNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Gender equity of evidentiary weight of testimony in courtPoliticalNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Imbalances in definitions of adulterySocial N/A
Law guarantees equal women and men have the same right to be the legal guardian of a child during marriage (also impact of customary/traditional/religious laws)SocialNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index
Law guarantees women and men have the same right to be the legal guardian of and have custody rights over a child after divorce (also impact of customary/traditional/religious laws) (Social Institutions and Gender Index)SocialNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index
Laws on sex selection technologySocial N/A
"Laws supporting women’s rights, access to resources and options"Social N/A
Legal age of marriage is the same for men and women (above/below 18)SocialNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index
Legal age of marriage is the same for men and women, but customary/traditional/religious laws discriminate against some womenSocialNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index
Legal equality of male and female rights to access financial services i.e. credit, bank accounts and loans (impact of customary, traditional and religious practices)EconomicNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index
Legal equality of male and female rights to own, use and control land (impact of customary, traditional and religious practices)EconomicNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index
Legal equality of male and female rights to own, use and control non-land assets (impact of customary, traditional and religious practices)EconomicNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index
Legal quota levels for women in national parliamentPoliticalNational & Sub-NationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Legal quota levels for women on corporate boardsEconomicNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Legal quotas for the appointment of women in land dispute resolution committeesEconomicNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights Database
Legal quotas for the appointment of women in land management and administration committeesEconomicNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights Database
Legal recognition of customary courtsPoliticalNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Legal recognition of personal law courtsPoliticalNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Legal rights of surviving spouse in terms of rights to the matrimonial house for lifeEconomicNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights Database
Legislation on rape recognises marital rapeSocialNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index
Legislation on sexual harassment in educationSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Legislation on sexual harassment in employmentSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Legislation on sexual harassment in public spacesSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Legislation on sexual harassment in service provisionSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Legislation specifically addresses sexual harassmentSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Legislation specifically addressing domestic violenceSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Legislation to allow joint tenure for urban and rural property with marital community of property (and joint administration) as the default)Economic N/A
Length of maternity leave (weeks)EconomicNationalOECD IAEG-GS
Length of paid paternity leave (weeks)EconomicNationalOECD IAEG-GS
Married couples jointly share legal responsibility for financially maintaining the family's expensesEconomicNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Maternity leave benefits (percentage of wages paid in covered period)Economic N/A
Outlawing of domestic violenceSocialNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law database
Parental leave with job protection (weeks)EconomicNationalOECD IAEG-GS
Political, legal, religious support for options for divorce (or lack of active opposition)Social N/A
Presence of gender budgetsPolitical N/A
Presence of law requiring married woman to obey their husbandsSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Presence of specific legislation on rapeSocialNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index
Quota mechanisms for representation in local government (party lists, reserved seats, proportion of candidates, voluntary/mandatory etc.)PoliticalNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law database
Quota mechanisms for representation in national legislature (party lists, reserved seats, proportion of candidates, voluntary/mandatory etc.)PoliticalNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law database
Quota mechanisms for women on corporate boardsEconomicNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law database
Regulations on male/female work hours and rolesEconomicNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law database
Regulations on part-time work (e.g. bans or limitations)Economic N/A
Repealing of mitigating legislation around honour crimesSocial N/A
Right to be a member of political partyPolitical N/A
Right to hold public officePolitical N/A
Right to social protectionSocial N/A
Signatory of international agreements and principles on women's rights e.g. CEDAW, Beijing Plan for ActionPolitical N/A
Specialised court or procedure for cases of domestic violenceSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
The legal framework includes provisions for the promotion of women’s rights to land, property, and/or productive resources.EconomicNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights Database
Total duration of paid maternity and parental leave (weeks)EconomicNationalOECD IAEG-GS
Under the law of succession, the surviving spouse is entitled to a minimum share of matrimonial propertyEconomicNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights Database
Whether sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights (and impact of traditional/religious/customary law)EconomicNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index
Whether widows and widowers have equal inheritance rights (and impact of traditional/religious/customary law)EconomicNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index

 

Participation
IndicatorDomainAvailable DataSource
Advocacy for rights and legislationSocial N/A
Employment rate of persons aged 25-49 with a child under age 3 living in a household and with no children living in the household, by sexEconomicNationalILO/EDGE
Equality between men and women for private sector employmentEconomicNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law database
Female employment levels and source of earningEconomicNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Female participation in village meetings (questions, complaints, requests etc.)Political N/A
Female professional and technical workers (as percentage of total)Economic N/A
Impact of maternity laws on hiring of womenEconomic N/A
Informal employment as a proportion of total non-agricultural employment, by sexEconomicNationalILO/EDGE
Labour force participation rate for persons aged 15-24, by sexEconomicNationalILO/EDGE
Labour force participation rate for persons aged 15+, by sexEconomicNationalILO/EDGE
Local campaigns against domestic violenceSocial N/A
Mobility of women/men within and outside their residential locality, as compared to men.Social N/A
Number of cases related to women's rights heard in local courts, and their results.Social N/A
Number of years of a female president or prime minister in the last 50 yearsPolitical N/A
Numbers of women in local institutions (e.g. women's associations, consciousness raising or income generating groups, local churches, ethnic and kinship associations) relative to project area population,Social N/A
Occupation (by gender)EconomicNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Participation rates in religious groups, voluntary associations or community group, by sexPoliticalNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Participation rates in various forms of civic activity, by sexPoliticalNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Participation rates in various forms of political activity during the last election, by sexPoliticalNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Percentage distribution of employed population in agricultural sector, by sexEconomicNationalILO/EDGE
Percentage distribution of employed population in industrial sector, by sexEconomicNationalILO/EDGE
Percentage distribution of employed population in service sector, by sexEconomicNationalILO/EDGE
Percentage of women participating in political actions - signing a petition, joining in boycotts, attending peaceful demonstrations, joining strikes, any other (any time and recent, absolute and relative to men)PoliticalNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values Survey
Percentage of women who are members of - churches, environmental organisations, humanitarian or charitable organisations, consumer organisations, self-help/mutual aid groups - absolute and relative to menPoliticalNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values Survey
Percentage of women who are members of professional associations - absolute and relative to menPoliticalNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values Survey
Percentage of women who are union members - absolute and relative to menPoliticalNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values Survey
Percentage of women/men who are members of political parties - absolute and relative to menPoliticalNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values Survey
Presence of specific committees on gender issues with "mainstreaming" missionPolitical N/A
Presence of women in parliamentary committees and caucusesPolitical N/A
Presence of women's caucuses (lower/upper house, formal/informal, cross party status, female only status, rules status, presence of strategic plan, presence of communication plan, issues covered - family, gender, other)PoliticalNationalInter-Parliamentary Union
Proportion of candidates for public office that are femalePolitical N/A
Proportion of employed working part-time, by sexEconomicNationalILO/EDGE
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament (upper and lower house)PoliticalNationalInter-Parliamentary Union/EDGE
Proportion of victorious candidates for public office that are femalePolitical N/A
Proportion of women who migrate internationallyEconomic N/A
Rate at which the number of local justices/ prosecutors/ lawyers who are women/men is increasing/decreasing.Social N/A
Rate at which the number of women/men in the local police force, by rank, is increasing or decreasing.Social N/A
Rates of contact with courts, ease of obtaining assistance and bribes paid in process, by genderSocialNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Relative male/female under-employment ratesEconomic N/A
Reporting of crimes against womenSocial N/A
Share of female police officersPoliticalNationalUNODC/EDGE
Women’s access to modern transportationSocial N/A
Women’s involvement and/or representation in local trade associations and access to marketsEconomic N/A
Women’s participation in extra-familial groups and social networksSocial N/A
Women’s participation in peace processes, agreements and negotiationsPolitical N/A
Women’s representation in high paying jobs; women CEOsEconomic N/A
"Women’s visibility in and access to social spaces"Social N/A
Youth unemployment rate for persons aged 15-24, by sexEconomicNationalILO/EDGE

 

Access to resources
IndicatorDomainAvailable DataSource
Access to anti-retroviral drug, by sexSocialNationalWHO/EDGE
Access to fertiliser and agricultural inputsEconomic N/A
Access to information and skills that a woman deems helpful or necessary; awareness that such information/skills even existSocial N/A
Accounting knowledgeEconomic N/A
Adjusted net enrolment rate in primary education by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Adjusted net intake rate to the first grade of primary education, by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Adolescent birth rateSocialNationalUNPD/EDGE
Adolescent birth rate by economic quintileSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Adult mortality 15-34 years by causeSocialNationalWHO/EDGE
Adult mortality 35-59 years by causeSocialNationalWHO/EDGE
Age at first birth (Women only)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Age at first marriage (actual, by gender)SocialNationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Age at first marriage (median, by gender)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Age at first sexual intercourse (actual, by gender)SocialNationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Age at first sexual intercourse (median, by gender)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Age gap with spouseSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Antenatal care coverage, at least four visitsSocialNationalUNICEF/EDGE
Antenatal care coverage, at least one visitSocialNationalUNICEF/EDGE
Area dedicated to traditionally female cropsEconomic N/A
Availability of government provided childcareEconomic N/A
Average number of hours spent on paid and unpaid domestic work combined (total work burden), by sexSocialNationalILO/EDGE
Average number of hours spent on unpaid domestic work by sex (NB - Only partial separation of housework and childcare)SocialNationalILO/EDGE
Changes in % of property owned by women and men (land, houses, livestock), across socio-economic and ethnic groups.Economic N/A
Childcare while working (access and type)EconomicNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
"Community mobilization for rights; campaigns for rights awareness; effective local enforcement of legal rights"Political N/A
Current marital status (by gender)SocialNationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Current use of any modern method of contraception (married women)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Degree of turnover in women's group leadershipPolitical N/A
Degree to which duty bearers ensure that women have the chance to know what they’re due, how they can access this, and what to do in the event that they are denied information or servicesSocial N/A
Discussion of family planning with spouse (by gender)SocialNationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Distribution of agricultural holders, by sexEconomicNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights Database
Distribution of agricultural land area owned, by sexEconomicNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights Database
Distribution of agricultural land value owned, by sexEconomicNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights Database
Distribution of agricultural landowners, by sexEconomicNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights Database
Education gap with spouseSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Educational attainment (lower secondary) of the population aged 25 and older, by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Educational attainment (post-secondary) of the population aged 25 and older, by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Educational attainment (primary) of the population aged 25 and older, by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Educational attainment (tertiary) of the population aged 25 and older, by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Educational attainment (upper secondary) of the population aged 25 and older, by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Effective transition rate from primary to secondary education (general programmes), by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Enforcement of legislation related to the protection of human rights, as well as specially designed laws and judicial services to promote gender equitySocial N/A
Estimated GNI per capita, by sexEconomicNationalUNDP/HDR
Evidence of "missing women"SocialNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index
Experience of crime and levels of crime reporting, by sexSocialNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Exposure to mass media (newspapers, radio and television; by gender)PoliticalNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Extent of training or networking among local women, as compared to men.Social N/A
Extent to which women's groups form larger alliances and coalitions to achieve collective gainsPolitical N/A
Fear of crime, by sexSocialNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Fear walking in neighbourhood, by sexSocialNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)
Female literacy levelsSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Female nutritional intakeSocial N/A
Female school attendance ratesSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Femicide ratesSocial N/A
Funding for gender equality initiativesPolitical N/A
Gender gap in wagesEconomicNationalILO/EDGE
Gender parity index of the gross enrolment ratio in primary educationSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Gender parity index of the gross enrolment ratio in secondary educationSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Gender parity index of the gross enrolment ratio in tertiary educationSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Girl child health outcomes - height for age, stunting, weight for height, BMISocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Gross enrolment ratio in secondary education, by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Gross enrolment ratio in tertiary education, by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Gross graduation ratio from lower secondary education, by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Incidence of agricultural landownership, by sexEconomicNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights Database
Increase/decrease in violence against womenSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Individual/Joint landholding with spouseEconomic N/A
Inequalities in child health indicators (vaccination rates, BMI, rates of malnutrition/stunting)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Knowledge of laws around issues of women's social positions, status, equality etc.Social N/A
"Knowledge of legal rights; domestic support for exercising rights"Political N/A
Knowledge of political system and means of access to it (absolute and relative)Political N/A
Level of out-of-pocket health expenditure/public health spending/subsidies by genderSocial N/A
Life expectancy at age 60, by sexSocialNationalUNPD/EDGE
Life expectancy at birth, by sexSocialNationalUNDP/HDR
Male/Female performance at school in different subjectsSocial N/A
Maternal mortality ratioSocialNationalWHO/EDGE
Mean years of schooling, by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics
Number of cases related to the legal rights of divorced and widowed women heard in local courts, and the results.Social N/A
Nursing and midwifery personnel per 1000 head of populationSocialNationalGlobal Health Observatory
Parental control on marriageSocial N/A
Percentage of available credit, financial and technical support services going to women/men from government/non-government sources.Economic N/A
Percentage of births attended by skilled health staffSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Percentage of men and women accessing ICT's, internet and mobile phonesSocial N/A
Percentage of women aged 20-24 years who were married or in a union before age 18SocialNationalUNICEF/EDGE
Percentage of women with birth certificatesPolitical N/A
Political funding networks/mechanisms for female candidatesPolitical N/A
Possession of formal/legal proof of tenure or ownershipEconomic N/A
Presence of machinery to monitor and sanction on equality legislation (e.g. independent ombudsman, political committees, service delivery contracts)Political N/A
Presence of services and trained professionals for victims of VAWSocial N/A
Prevalence of FGM/cuttingSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Prevalence of sexual harassmentSocial N/A
Primary education completion rate (proxy), by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Proportion of adult population owning land, by sexEconomicNationalWorld Bank/EDGE
Proportion of births attended by a skilled health professionalSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Proportion of children under age 3 in formal careEconomicNationalOECD/EDGE
Proportion of ever-partnered women (aged 15-49) subjected to physical and/or sexual violence by a current or former intimate partner, in the last 12 monthsSocialNationalUNSD, WHO/EDGE
Proportion of households with access to mass media (radio, TV, internet), by sex of household headSocialNationalInternational Telecommunication Union/EDGE
Proportion of individuals using mobile/cellular telephones, by sexSocialNationalInternational Telecommunication Union/EDGE
Proportion of individuals using the internet, by sexSocialNationalInternational Telecommunication Union/EDGE
Proportion of population with access to credit, by sexEconomicNationalWorld Bank/EDGE
Proportion of women (aged 15-49) subjected to sexual violence by persons other than an intimate partner, since age 15SocialNationalUNSD, WHO/EDGE
Rates of conviction for sexual assaultSocial N/A
Rates of intimate partner violenceSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Regional/national trends in timing of marriage: political, legal, religious support for (or lack of active opposition to)Social N/A
Relative contribution of women’s earnings to household expenditures (For married/living together and otherwise)EconomicNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Relative poverty of female headed householdsEconomicNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Relative size and profitability of female farming plotsEconomic N/A
Relative size and profitability of female owned firms (absolute and sectors)Economic N/A
Salary/wage differentials between women and men for similar workEconomic N/A
Sex ratios of infant and under-five mortalitySocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Share of female science, engineering, manufacturing and construction graduates at tertiary levelSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE
Strength as a voting blocPolitical N/A
Systems providing easy access to contraception, safe abortion, reproductive health servicesSocial N/A
Teenage pregnancy and motherhoodSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
The effect of the enforcement of legislation in terms of treatment of offenders against women.Social N/A
Total fertility rates - births per womanSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Total fertility rates - births per woman by economic quintileSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
Under-five mortality rate, by sexSocialNationalUNICEF/EDGE
Unmet need for contraceptivesSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys
Women's share of population aged 15-49 living with HIV/AIDSSocialNationalUNICEF/EDGE
Youth literacy rate of persons (15-24 years), by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE