Of the two million displaced by the civil conflict in Swat and Lower Dir, Pakistan, many have since returned, due to the end of government military operations. Alongside conflict damage, floods have destroyed much of the infrastructure in the districts. As a result, national and international aid programmes have shifted from humanitarian to development focused interventions.
This report is based on a two wave survey carried out in the region. The surveys, conducted 2012 and 2015, measured changes in livelihoods, access to basic services, social protection and livelihood assistance and their perceptions of governance. In particular, the report explores people’s perceptions of state legitimacy at the point of transition from humanitarian to development assistance.
- Some, though not all, education, water and health services may contribute to perceptions of greater state legitimacy.
- Government and donor programmes need to be able to adjust to changes over time.
- Legitimacy is also about safety and security and is impacted by the historical experiences of a region.