Decentralisation in Kenya presents both opportunities and difficulties for the urban sanitation sector. Political, administrative and fiscal powers and responsibilities are already devolved to counties, including for urban sanitation. The next step is further delegation to city and town authorities and service providers. Meanwhile, the Kenya Environmental Sanitation and Hygiene Policy 2016–2020 proposes major institutional changes within the sector.
As decentralisation unfolds, a strong institutional framework can help secure better urban sanitation outcomes by coordinating action, ensuring cooperation and generating commitment among the many responsible organisations and individuals at different levels. To help secure these benefits, these briefing papers examine the experience of other countries, which have evolved the institutional setup for urban sanitation alongside wider decentralisation reforms.