Journal articles or issuesNovember 2019Sarah Baird, Zulfiqar A.Bhuttab, Bassam Abu Hamad, Joan Hamory-Hicks, Nicola Jones and Jennifer MuzAn 18-year-old girl in a hospital in Afar, Ethiopia. Photo: Nathalie Bertrams/GAGEAdolescence is seen as a window of opportunity for intervention but also as a time during which restrictive gender attitudes and norms become more salient. This increasingly gendered world has the potential to profoundly influence adolescents’ capabilities, including their physical and mental health.Using quantitative data on 6,500 young adolescents (10–12) from the Gender and Adolescence: Global Evidence (GAGE) programme, this paper analyses the association between both restrictive gender attitudes (RGAs) at the individual level and restrictive gender norms (RGNs) at the community level and physical and mental health in Bangladesh and Ethiopia.We find significant associations between RGAs and RGNs and height-for-age z-scores, body mass index z-scores, self-reported health, adolescent hunger, psychological well-being and self-esteem. We find no relationship between RGAs or RGNs and illness. We also find heterogeneity across country and urbanicity. We find surprisingly limited variation by gender, and the differences we do see point to important vulnerabilities for both boys and girls. Our results point to the powerful role that distal factors such as culture and beliefs, as manifested through RGAs and RGNs, can play in shaping health outcomes for both boys and girls and suggest important next steps for future research and policy.Read the research Do restrictive gender attitudes and norms influence physical and mental health during very young adolescence? Evidence from Bangladesh and EthiopiaRelated Adolescent health, nutrition and sexual and reproductive health in EthiopiaAdolescents’ perceptions of their health, nutrition and sexual and reproductive health, and experiences of accessing related services.Research reports and studies22 May 2019Achieving social protection for all adolescents: how can a gender norms lens support more effective programming?Outlining the key actions that are critical to achieving gender- and adolescent-responsive social protection programmes.Briefing papers8 March 2019 GAGE on: adolescence and gender normsThis ’GAGE on’ briefing discusses change strategies to support gender norm change.Briefing papers1 June 2018See more:gendermental healthadolescent girlsBangladeshEthiopiaView the discussion thread.