This study argues the next few years will be crucial to the future stability and prosperity of Southern Sudan. As considerable numbers of people return, the pressure of reintegration mounts. Strategies must therefore urgently be put in place to address massive and rapid urbanisation, encourage civilians to disarm and provide opportunities for the sustainable use of natural resources, including land in urban areas. Infrastructure and markets also need development and equitable access to essential services must be put in place. The study, commissioned by the governments of Canada and Denmark, is the second phase of a research project looking at one of the world's largest return and reintegration processes. 'The long road home' focuses on Juba and Jonglei State.