This review is matched by an analysis of the most important external flows which could help the country fill the financial gap, i.e. trade, debt and official development assistance (ODA). These represent the core flows underlying MDG 8. Section 3 will describe such flows and provide some evidence that the role of external actors in accompanying the country’s efforts towards MDG achievement has somewhat lots prominence as the country has shifted from external dependence to domestic resource mobilisation. A major driver of the shift has been the increased reliance on trade – through revenues from hydrocarbon exports – which has largely replaced the role played by debt forgiveness and ODA in financing social spending.
In light of this scenario and of its possible evolution, we identify some ways in which the international community could be instrumental to accompanying the process of MDG achievements in Bolivia in line with the fulfilment of MDG 8.